Najwa Adra’s working paper examines indigenous dispute resolution in Yemen. What makes this paper so interesting is that it includes seven (7) case studies from her extensive fieldwork between 1978 and 2005 in Yemen’s Central Highlands. These case studies, in addition to Adra’s apt description of what mediation looks like, allows the reader to leave the oh-so lofty (and somewhat tedious) realm of concepts to get a feel for what it’s like to live with and experience customary law. Another highlight is her coverage of women’s participation in dispute resolution. Although told that women play no role in tribal affairs, Adra learns that this is a myth. In fact, “women actively taking part in mixed gender mediation, again in contradiction to formally stated principles.” Read the full paper to learn how “c]ustomary law not only maintains peace among an armed population in a region of widely dispersed communities that are difficult of access, but it affirms, and the mediation process enacts, tribal values…”
Mary Edwards Walker
(November 26, 1832 – February 21, 1919)
As of 2015, she is the only woman ever to receive the Medal of Honor. Prior to the American Civil War, she earned her medical degree and later volunteered with the Union Army serving as a surgeon. Captured by Confederate forces after crossing enemy lines to treat wounded civilians, Walker was arrested as a spy. She served as a prisoner until released in a prisoner exchange.
(22 March 1913 – 22 March 2001)
Sabina Gökçen was a Turkish aviator. She was the first Turkish female combat pilot at age 23. According to some sources she was also the world’s first female fighter pilot; however, others such as Marie Marvingt and Eugenie Mikhailovna Shakhovskaya both preceded her. She was one of the eight adopted children of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
A former member of a secret I.R.A. unit called the Unknowns, that conducted clandestine paramilitary work, including disappearances. Price became the first woman admitted to full membership in the I.R.A. in 1971 when she was twenty. She went to prison for a 1973 London bombing that injured 200 people.
Tabassum Adnan, from Swat Valley, founded the first-ever women-only Jirga in Pakistan. She was awarded the 2015 Secretary of State’s International Women of Courage Award in recognition of her services of women’s rights.